Monaco, or in long form, the Principality of Monaco, is a country in Western Europe and a municipality of the same name occupy the same land that the state itself (making it a city-state). Ensconced in the south of France, between the towns of Cap d'Ail, Beausoleil and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin in the Alpes-Maritimes, Monaco is situated on the Mediterranean Sea, along the French Riviera at nearly a dozen miles east of Nice.
Dependent of the Republic of Genoa which Grimaldi was one of the patrician families, relatively autonomous since 1297, it became a constitutional monarchy, and is headed since 2005 by Sovereign Prince Albert II of Monaco of the Grimaldi dynasty, which is one of oldest reigning dynasties in the world.
That state now occupies an area of 1.974 km2, making it the second smallest independent state in the world (the first being the Vatican). At the last census of 2008, Monaco had 32 796 inhabitants. With 16 610 inhabitants per km2, the country's most densely populated in the world.
Almost entirely urbanized, the Principality of Monaco enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate and has many luxury hotel facilities. The Monaco Grand Prix takes place and attractions are present throughout the year including the Casino de Monte-Carlo, the Oceanographic Museum and the Palace.